Ever Wondered How Water Quality is measured by Municipality !
Water is the basic necessity of our life. The quality is determined as a set of chemical,physical and biological features of the water. These features determine the suitability for various uses.
Tha analysis of the quality is done to achieve various objectives, like safeguarding human health, control the pollution level of water bodies and to maintain and improve the water quality for amenity,irrigation, etc. A number of quality parameters are measured to determine the water quality. These parameters are divided in the physical properties like pH, color,temperature,odour,etc; chemical properties like COD, BOD,total nitrogen, total phosphate,etc; and biological properties like total coloform bacteria,faecal coloform counts, etc.
The Physical parameters are determined a bit easily. For these, simple specific kits are available. These tests are devised to reduce time, labour and cost of estimation and are very reliable.
The determination of chemical parameters are relatively more difficult. They are often determined by chromatographic characteristics(HPLC). This makes the estimations more costly and time and labour intensive. To make it rapid, efficient and cheaper, biosensors and enzymes are being made to develop.
For biological parameters to be measured, ELISA(Enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay) may be used for a rapid detection of bacteria and viruses.